[29][30], The local IRA units, for the most part, did not accept the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiated to end the war -ultimately repudiating the authority of the newly created Irish Free State. Cork Protestant Hall. Someone's last name tells you that somewhere along the line there was an Irish Catholic ancestor, but not that the contemporary person with that surname is either Catholic, Protestant or, for that matter, Irish. It has produced a number of political leaders, notably Jack Lynch – who became Taoiseach (Irish prime minister) in the 1960s. This decrease is often linked to the removal of British forces from the Free State, however the rate of decline was quite similar between native and foreign born Protestants and the drop was five times greater than the total number of Protestants in the British forces in 1911. Shipbuilding in Cork also came to an end in the 1980s. The Protestants of Eire retain an influence out of proportion to their numbers. [34], However, in the 1990s new industries came to Cork. An ineffective Irish Confederate attempt to take the city in 1642 was beaten off at the battle of Liscarroll. For this reason it is incorrect to refer to members of the Church of Ireland as ‘non–Catholic’. The medieval population of Cork was about 2,000 people. The city was at one time fully walled, and several sections and gates remain. For instance, Marina Commercial Park was built on the site of the old Dunlop and Ford plants and Cork Airport Business Park first opened in 1999. The Cork municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. Small pockets of the Real IRA that did not merge with the New IRA continue to have a presence in Republic of Ireland, particularly in Cork and to a lesser extent in Dublin. Is the Church of Ireland Protestant or Catholic? This represented a drop of 32% in the Protestant population compared to the 2% drop in the Catholic population. Cemeteries and Burial Grounds of County Cork NOTICE: This website is undergoing an extensive remodel that will hopefully be launched in 2021. In 1649–53, Ireland was re-conquered by an English Parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell. Like Dublin, much of Cork's medieval architecture was replaced by neo-classical Georgian buildings. However, during the subsequent Irish War of Independence 1919–1921, Cork was the scene of much violence.[27]. The terms Protestant and Catholic are not really opposites. The title is now united with other bishoprics. They refused to admit Lord Mountjoy's English army when it marched south, citing their charters from the 12th century. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, and the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900.[13]. If the Protestant population declined at the same rate as the Roman Catholic population in County Cork over the 15 years then it would have dropped by 1051. “Protestant and Catholic are cultural markers, not necessarily denominational ones. In the Republic of Ireland, since 1926, there has been a constant pattern of Protestants marrying Catholics. [25] The Victorian influence on the city is noticeable in place names such as Victoria Cross (after Queen Victoria), Albert Quay (after Prince Albert), Adelaide Street (after Queen Adelaide) and the Victoria Hospital on the Old Blackrock Road. The population of Cork by this times was around 5,000, most of whom lived outside the city walls. Like the Protestants the Catholics began to eat more meat. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Over 300 buildings were destroyed and two suspected IRA men were shot dead in their beds by British forces on the night. In reality, as the majority of loyalists in Cork were Protestant then if the IRA attacked loyalists they had to attack some Protestants. [11] In the twelfth century, this settlement was taken over by invading Anglo-Norman settlers. If we exclude the 1,045 British military included in this figure, who left by 1922, the decline is 2,515 or 20.56%. [23] By mid century Cork had a population of about 80,000. Permalink. [35], Population explosion, famine and emigration. In 1916, during the Easter Rising as many as 1000 Irish Volunteers mobilised in Cork for an armed rebellion against British rule but they dispersed without fighting. Historians such as Peter Hart have written that 'enemy' groups such as Protestants and ex-soldiers were targeted at random by the IRA. [14] In 1491 Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. Much 19th century architecture can still be seen in many areas around the city such as the neo-Georgian and Victorian buildings that now house banks and department stores. Bowen, Protestants in a Catholic state : Ireland's privileged minority (Kingston and Montreal, 1983), pp 22, 25. 1. [7] However the ancestor of the modern city was founded between 915 and 922,[8] when Viking settlers established a trading community. With eighteen essays by scholars with individual perspectives on Irish Protestant history, this book explores a number of those passages. Into the 21st century, tourism has grown in economic importance, and in 2005 Cork was named European Capital of Culture. The difference between Protestant and Catholic art was further emphasized by the Council of Trent (1545-63), which initiated Catholic Counter-Reformation art, and in the process issued a new set of aesthetics for a more stringent style of painting and sculpture. After the famine in the mid-1800s there was more variety in the Catholics’ diet. It also had an ethnic or sectarian dimension, but despite the use of the terms “Protestant” and “Catholic” to refer to the two sides, it was not a religious conflict. He was joining a privileged minority; in Cork City, in 1916, Protestants comprised 7% of the population, but owned 60% of the cars. Protestant Community in Newmarket Co. Cork (too old to reply) Graham Coward 2005-06-24 07:38:40 UTC. 2011). [12] Cork's city charter was granted by Prince John in 1185. In particular, it will take a closer look at how Catholic art responded to the Protestant Reformation by depicting those teachings which were being challenged. Many of the protestants in Ireland are from the same stock as the Catholics. In an hour-long chat on BBC Four's Mark Lawson series, he said there was an "under siege" mentality felt by Protestants when he was growing up in Cork in the Seventies. The Roman Catholic … Cork's inner city slums were cleared by the municipal authority from the 1920s onwards,[33] and their inhabitants were re-housed in housing estates on the periphery of the city -especially on its north side. The Catholic Church in Ireland (Irish: Eaglais Chaitliceach in Éireann) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See.With 3.7 million members, it is the largest Christian church in Ireland.In the Republic of Ireland's 2016 census, 78% of the population identified as Catholic, which represents a decrease of 6% from 2011. O'Brien published a third local newspaper, the Cork Free Press.[26]. The Bishop of Cork was a separate episcopal title which took its name after the city of Cork in Ireland. For 1653 and 1659 figures from Civil Survey Census of those years, Paper of Mr Hardinge to Royal Irish Academy 14 March 1865. Protestants made up 10% of the population of the Irish Free State when it gained independence in 1922. Cork merchants exported large amounts of butter and beef to Britain, the rest of Europe and North America. Following the Reformation, the united see of Cork and Cloyne continued with parallel apostolic successions. [16], A description of Cork written in 1577 speaks of the city as, "the fourth city of Ireland" that is, "so encumbered with evil neighbours, the Irish outlaws, that they are fayne to watch their gates hourly...they trust not the country adjoining [and only marry within the town] so that the whole city is linked to each other in affinity". The see of Cork remained a separate bishopric until 19 April 1958 when it united with Ross to form the current united bishopric of Cork and Ross. Their influence can still be seen in the names of the Huguenot Quarter and French Church Street. admin. But there was no Cork equivalent to the violence of the War of the Camisards, and in Cork in the early nineteenth century the poorer strata of Catholics and Protestants were living side by side, more or less peacefully, at a time when their spatially segregated Nimes counterparts were confronting each other in the streets. Fast forward to the 2011 census and the figure was a little under half that at 4.27%. Its history dates back to the 6th century. Many new buildings were erected in Cork in the 18th century. It is both Protestant and Catholic. "The United Dioceses of Cork, Cloyne and Ross", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bishop_of_Cork&oldid=924860803, Lists of Anglican bishops and archbishops, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2019, at 11:10. --Please reply to group or reply "off-group" by removing the two "z"s from my e-mail address. Cork became a stronghold for the English Protestants, who sought refuge there after the outbreak of the rebellion and remained in Protestant hands throughout the ensuing Irish Confederate Wars. In 1825, over 1,800 Irish residents departed from Cork to emigrate to Peterborough, Ontario, Canada assisted by Peter Robinson (who organised the scheme on behalf of the British Government). In most counties (exceptions being Cork, Dublin and the border counties) there were insufficent Protestants to enable most Protestants to realistically marry another Protestant, so most married Catholics. In 1957, the marriage of a Catholic and Protestant in Fethard-on-Sea, Co Wexford, caused social unrest - and a priest-led boycott of local Protestant business. Examples of this include, Christ Church (1720–26), St Anne's Shandon (1722–26) and a Customs House (1724). [14] It suffered a severe blow in 1349 when almost half the townspeople died of bubonic plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. Cork by and large sided with the Crown in these conflicts, even after a Spanish expeditionary force landed at nearby Kinsale in 1601 during the Nine Years War. Many Northern Irish Protestants are the descendants of Scottish people who were in turn the descendants of Irish people who went over to Scotland a long time ago. Its citizens half jokingly refer to it as the "real capital". Michael Collins, commander in chief of the National Army, was killed in an IRA ambush at Beal na mBlath, west of the city on 25 August 1922. Gerard Murphy's book "Year of the Disappearances" put the number of Protestants killed in Cork at 73. As a result of these closures unemployment was high in Cork in the 1980s. Is anyone out there with ancestors from the Church of Ireland in Newmarket. There was fighting for three days in the hills around Douglas and Rochestown, in which roughly 20 men were killed and about 60 wounded as the anti-Treaty IRA contested the National Army's advance into the city. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city. Another, highly disputed aspect of the War of Independence in Cork was the shooting of informers. The union eventually took place with Jordan Purcell appointed bishop of the united see of Cork and Cloyne in 1429.[3]. The Cork child calling their puppet Polly Protestant is the highlight of #LateLateToyShow so far — Rachel Quirke (@quirkiltons) November 27, 2020. did the girl in the toy show say her puppets name was polly protestant — kate (@wlwverine) November 27, 2020. The turmoil of this period ultimately led to substantial Irish independence for 26 of the 32 Irish counties in 1922, but also to a bitter civil war between Irish nationalist factions in 1922–23. And out of this struggle the Catholic has, perforce, learned toleration. This dropped to 8,668 in 1926, a decline of 3,560 or 29.11%. Every upward step of the Catholic has emancipated some one of the smaller Protestant sects; every successful revolt of the Catholic peasant has given some added security even to those Protestant farmers who were most zealously defending the landlord. The backdrop is a general depression post Napoleonic Wars, Banking Collapses, and the failure of traditional industry due to competition form Britain. On 11 December the city centre was gutted by fires started by the Black and Tans in reprisal for IRA attacks in the city. Cork's economy dipped in the late 20th century as the old manufacturing industries in Cork declined. [28] His successor as Mayor, Terence McSwiney was arrested in August 1920 and died on hunger strike in October of that year. Some were dead ends. [15] Cork's nickname of the 'rebel city' originates in these events. The widely-accepted Irish-American version is that Jameson is Catholic whiskey and Bushmills is Protestant whiskey. Cut-glass decanters and claret jugs moulded in Belfast, Dublin, Cork, Newry or Water ford added to the splendour of the tables of the wealthy. Attacks and reprisals continued in the city until the fighting was ended in a truce agreed in July 1921. Cork and also nearby Cobh became major points of departure for Irish emigrants, who left the country in great numbers after the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s. Subsequently, they reverted to guerrilla warfare and took to destroying all the roads and bridges connecting Cork with the rest of the country. The former mayor of Cork John Atwater and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. [20] Although most of them went no further than the city's suburbs, this was the beginning of Protestant domination of the city that would last for nearly two centuries. [20] However, the price the citizens demanded for their loyalty was toleration of their Roman Catholic religion. In 1911 the Protestant population in West Cork (defined here as the seven rural districts south of the long-recognised ‘Protestant frontier’ of the Caha Mountains ridge that runs east to Cork Harbour) was 12,228. There are Catholics who accept the universal jurisdiction of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome. During the 19th and early 20th century important industries in Cork included brewing, distilling, wool and shipbuilding. By July 1922, when the Irish Civil War, broke out, Cork was held by anti-Treaty forces as part of a self-styled Munster Republic -intended to be a stronghold for the preservation of the Irish Republic annulled by the Treaty. [24] In addition, there were some municipal improvements such as gas light street lights in 1825, two local papers, the Cork Constitution published from 1823 and the Cork Examiner, first published in 1841 and, very importantly for the development of modern industry, the railway reached Cork in 1849. [10] The Norse phase of Cork's history left a legacy of family names, such as Cotter and Coppinger, peculiar to Cork which are claimed to have Norse origins. There were attacks on Free State troops in the city, but not on the scale of the campaign against British forces in 1919–21. [9] The Viking leader Ottir Iarla is particularly associated with raiding and conquests in the province of Munster. The Port of Cork is also a busy and important port. They were political not religious. The anti listing is one the newspaper mentioned follow up which is not included. I would not deliberately seek out a Southern Protestant as if there was some connection or imperative to do so. The estimated reading time is 1 minute. In 1603, the citizens of Cork along with Waterford and Limerick rebelled, expelling Protestant ministers, imprisoning English officials, seizing the municipal arsenals and demanding freedom of worship for Catholics. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries French Protestants (Huguenots) arrived in Cork fleeing from religious persecution at the hands of Louis XIV of France. Cemetery page corrections, additions and updates will not appear on this page but are going into the remodeled website. Cork, located on Ireland's south coast, is its second largest city within the Republic of Ireland after Dublin and the third largest on the island of Ireland after Dublin and Belfast. The Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib connects this with the earliest Viking settlement of Cork. There is a record of 31 Protestants and 69 Catholics casualties in the war, but in proportion to their populations, Protestant casualties were almost twice as high as Catholics in Bandon. The increase was due to migration from the countryside as people fled from poverty and in the 1840s, a terrible famine. Cloyne became part of the united bishopric of Cloyne and Ross until 24 November 1850 when they were separated. The only Southern Protestant of any note I am aware of is Graham Norton the TV presenter. I am technically a Northern Protestant. After the withdrawal of British troops in early 1922, they took over the military barracks in Cork and the surrounding area. "The Protestant Reformation fails in Ireland", "Eoghan Harris looks at a new book by Gerard Murphy", "Book Review: The Year of Disappearances", "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850", CorkPastAndPresent.ie (Cork City Library) Photos, Frank O'Connor International Short Story Award, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Cork&oldid=992662746, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 13:14. Cork suffered from the warfare involved in the reconquest, particularly in the Second Desmond Rebellion in 1579–83, when thousands of rural people fled to the city to avoid the fighting, bringing with them an outbreak of bubonic plague. A recent example is Gerard Murphy's The year of disappearances: political killings in Cork , 1921-1922 (Dublin, 2010): see my review in Dublin Review of Books (Mar. However the badly armed anti-Treaty forces did not make a stand in Cork itself and dispersed after sporadic fighting, burning a number of buildings and the barracks they had been holding (for example at Elizabeth Fort and Collins Barracks).[32]. Porridge became a regular part of each day's food. Protestant vs Catholic art. This atrocity did not stop IRA activity in the city however. In the Church of Ireland, the title eventually became part of the current united bishopric of Cork, Cloyne and Ross. This thesis is disputed by other scholars such as John Borgonovo, who write that their studies suggest that the IRA's 30 or so confirmed civilian victims in Cork do seem to have been targeted because the IRA believed they were passing information to the British and not for any other reason. Cork Protestant Hall. Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914 many of Cork's National Volunteers enlisted to served with the Royal Munster Fusiliers, suffering heavy casualties both in Gallipoli and on the Western Front. This led to extremes of poverty and overcrowding in Cork city during this century. Some led nowhere in particular. [17][18], The character of Cork was changed by the Tudor conquest of Ireland (c.1540–1603) which left the English authorities in control of all of Ireland for the first time,[19] introduced thousands of English settlers in the Plantations of Ireland and tried to impose the Protestant Reformation on a predominantly Catholic country. In the Church of Ireland it is held by the Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross,[1] and in the Roman Catholic Church it is held by the Bishop of Cork and Ross.[2]. The character of Cork was changed by the Tudor conquest of Ireland (c.1540–1603) which left the English authorities in control of all of Ireland for the first time, introduced thousands of English settlers in the Plantations of Ireland and tried to impose the Protestant Reformation on a predominantly Catholic … The Free State forces landed at nearby Passage West with 450 troops and several artillery pieces. The IRA were Republican. On 30 July 1326, Pope John XXII, on the petition of King Edward II of England, issued a papal bull for the union of the bishoprics of Cork and Cloyne, the union to take effect on the death of either bishop. This exhibition will compare and contrast several different pieces of art from the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. This resulted in the area known as "Scott's Plains" being renamed "Peterborough" as a tribute. Mentioned follow up which is not included was the scene of much violence. 3! 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